VCE Australian history - units 3 & 4

Guide for VCE Australian history students

Power & resistance (1788-1913)

Students investigate the ways in which the colonisation of Australia began as a complex story of the exercise of power and resistance to authority.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples confronted the challenge of colonisation in a variety of ways, from frontier battles and conflicts that resisted the dispossession of their land, to adaptation and attempts to coexist, survive and preserve their culture.

Resistance also emerged among the settler communities and their descendants who challenged governing structures, sought democratic rights, land reforms, and social, political and economic rights and reforms. (VCE History Study Design 2022–2026 p.57)

Books & articles

General histories

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples


Women's rights

Workers rights